arctic tundra is at the top of the world -- around the North Pole.
Animals are adapted to handle cold winters and to breed
and raise young quickly in the very short and cool summers.
Temperatures during the arctic winter can dip to -60
F (-51 C)! The average temperature of the warmest month is between 50 F
(10 C) and 32 F (0 C). Sometimes as few as 55 days per year have a mean
temperature higher than 32 F (0 C). The average annual temperature is only
10 to 20F (-12C to -6C).
The soil is often frozen. Permafrost, or permanent ice,
usually exists within a meter of the surface. Water is unavailable during
most of the year.
Annual precipitation is very low, usually less than 10
inches (25 centimeters).